India is centrally placed in South Asian region and with cross border interconnections with neighbouring countries, playing a major role in effective utilization of regional resources. Further, to facilitate import/ export of electricity between India and neighbouring countries, Ministry of Power, Govt. of India have issued the "Guidelines for Import/Export (Cross Border) of Electricity-2018" on 18th December, 2018. India have also developed expertise in high capacity high voltage transmission projects including AC 400kV and 765kV and HVDC systems. Presently, India is connected with Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh and Myanmar. Country wise details are as under:
India – Nepal
Nepal is interconnected with India at various places through 11kV, 33kV, 132kV and 220kV lines. For transfer of bulk power, interconnection between India and Nepal through Dhalkebar (Nepal) - Muzaffarpur (India) 400kV D/C transmission line has been constructed. A total of about 700 MW of power is being supplied to Nepal through these interconnections.
Further, 400kV D/C Gorakhpur (India) – Butwal (Nepal) line, 400kV D/C Dhalkebar (Nepal) – Sitamarhi (India) line, 132kV D/C Nanpara, Bihar (India) – Kohalpur (Nepal), stringing of second circuit of 132kV line Kataiya (India) – Kushaha (Nepal) and 132 kV Raxaul (India) – Parwanipur (Nepal) lines have been agreed.
India – Bhutan
India and Bhutan already are connected through various 400kV, 220kV and 132kV lines, mainly for import of about 2000 MW power from Tala HEP (1020MW), Chukha HEP (336MW), Kurichu HEP(60MW) and Mangdechu HEP (720 MW) in Bhutan to India.
Further, Punatsangchu-I (1200 MW) and Punatsangchu-II (1020 MW) HEPs in Bhutan, are expected to be commissioned by 2024-25. The transmission system for transfer of this power from these projects to India is already in place. With the commissioning of these HEPs the power transfer between Bhutan and India would be enhanced to about 4200 MW.
India – Bangladesh
A high capacity interconnection between India and Bangladesh exists through Baharampur (India) – Bheramara (Bangladesh) 400kV D/C lines along with 2x500 MW HVDC back-to-back terminal at Bheramara. Another 400kV (operated at 132kV) interconnection exits between Surajmaninagar (Tripura) in India to Comilla in Bangladesh. These interconnections cumulatively facilitate transfer of power of the order of 1160MW to Bangladesh.
Further, to enable more intra-regional electricity trade, including competitively-priced power generated from Hydro-electric power projects in India, Nepal and Bhutan; development a 765kV Double Circuit cross-border electricity interconnection between Katihar (India), Parbotipur (Bangladesh) and Bornagar (India) was agreed in the India-Bangladesh Joint Statement during Official Visit of Prime Minister of Bangladesh to India.
India – Myanmar
India is providing about 3 MW of power from Moreh in Manipur (India) to Tamu town in Myanmar through 11 kV transmission line. Strengthening of more low capacity links at various places along the border is being jointly worked out. High capacity link between the countries is also under discussion.
India – Sri Lanka
Interconnection between India and Sri Lanka is under discussion between the two countries.